The articulation between both criteria is not simple. Inter-ethnic stratification does not correspond to emerging class relations –“we are not saying that Indians and Ladinos are simply two social classes”–, as it is deeply rooted in the values of the members of society. In fact, it functions as a India Phone Number List conservative force that holds back the development of class relations. To the extent that the process of class formation advances, new bases of stratification are developed according to socioeconomic criteria, even when "ethnic consciousness may, however, weigh more than class consciousness"27. Faced with capitalist development –which seems to be ineluctable India Phone Number List and inevitable–, the reactions of the indigenous people can be of different types. Acculturation may occur, which may involve the adoption of Ladino status symbols (consumer goods, for example), even while maintaining indigenous cultural identity.
Alternatively, the reaction may be a general economic rise of indigenous groups, challenging ladino superiority. Assimilation and individualized ladinoization can also occur, which imply India Phone Number List the abandonment of the community and integration into the national society, through a process of proletarianization. Stavenhagen argues that during the 1960s in Mexico, the rapid development of class relations to the detriment of colonial relations produced the development of indigenismo as an ideology and as a principle of action. This India Phone Number List is a "nationalist" position, which calls for the strengthening of indigenous governments and demands the national political representation of these peoples.
The paradox is that this can be promoted by the India Phone Number List national State itself, as a means to achieve "an objective that represents its absolute negation, that is, the incorporation of the Indian into Mexican nationality, that is, the disappearance of the Indian as such"28. Stavenhagen's complex analysis crosses several axes, in an approach that takes as its central datum the dominant place of the nation-state and India Phone Number List the implicit dilemmas in the construction of nationality, issues of great relevance in the period in which the author was writing.